Catania has a population of about 700 000 inhabitants and is the tenth municipality in Italy by population and the most populous that is not the regional capital. Founded in 729 BC from the Chalcidesi of nearby Naxos, the city boasts a thousand-year history characterized by various dominations whose remains enrich its artistic, architectural and cultural heritage. During its history it has been repeatedly affected by volcanic eruptions (the most imposing, in historical times, is that of 1669) and earthquakes (the most catastrophic mentioned were those of 1169 and 1693).